Uttaranchal

Bihar

 
Bihar, an eastern Indian state and the place that gave birth to Buddhism and Jainism and helped in the growth of Sikhism and Hinduism, has a past that is unmatched anywhere in the world. It was the center of first republic in the world at Vaishali. The city of Patliputra was largest and grandest in the world at the height of its glory. Even today, the state is amongst the largest mineral producing regions in India and contributes immensely in national wealth creation. There is an array of tourist destinations of diverse interests in the state, though their potential has not been exploited fully till now. The state that represents every thing good and bad within the country is waiting to be explored and rediscovered.



 
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Major Tourist Destnations in Bihar:
Bodhgaya Nalanda Patna
Pawapuri Rajgir Vaishali
Vikramshila    

Bihar, an eastern Indian state and the place that gave birth to Buddhism and Jainism and helped in the growth of Sikhism and Hinduism, has a past that is unmatched anywhere in the world. It was the center of first republic in the world at Vaishali. The city of Patliputra was largest and grandest in the world at the height of its glory. Even today, the state is amongst the largest mineral producing regions in India and contributes immensely in national wealth creation. There is an array of tourist destinations of diverse interests in the state, though their potential has not been exploited fully till now. The state that represents every thing good and bad within the country is waiting to be explored and rediscovered.

History
The early history of Bihar is lost as the major events and happenings were not documented but with the advent of Jains and Buddhists, text documentation of events began. From these texts we get to know about the sixteen "Mahajanapadas" that flourished during the 6th century BC. Vaishali, Anga, Rajgriha, Pataliputra, Nalanda, and Mithila are just a few of the places in Bihar that knit the history of ancient India. Vaishali in northern Bihar, the center of the Lichchavi kingdom is rated as the most ancient and credited as the world's first republic. It got its aura of sanctity with the birth of Lord Mahavira here. This was also the favorite resting place of Lord Buddha and he preached his last sermon here, which was later commemorated by a lion capital erected by King Ashoka. The legends of the courtesan Ambapali's exquisite beauty added to the glory and charm of Vaishali. By the fifth century BC, the focus of history shifted to Magadh with its capital at Rajgir (seen as the first recorded capital in Indian history), and later Pataliputra. Rajgir witnessed the first Buddhist Council and the conversion of the Mauryan king Bimbisara to Buddhism. During the last days of the Buddha, the political masters thought of shifting their capital from Rajgir to Pataliputra, which gradually became the pride of Asia and subsequently the capital to the great empires of Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas and Guptas. It was here that Megasthenes spent most of his time as an Ambassador of his Syrian king Seleukos Nikator. During the medieval period, except for the brief twinkle of Sher Shah's reign who rose from his base in Bihar to the sultanate of Delhi that ruled over the entire country, the province of Bihar rarely enjoyed the status of an independent state; rather it swayed with the fortunes of Delhi, Jaunpur and Bengal. Various sultans of Delhi and later the Mughals, as well as emperors and princes, criss-crossed Bihar in order to crush the rebellions in distant Bengal. Much later, Babur, in pursuit of the Lodhis, came as far as Bihar. Babur's death brought Humayun to the throne of Delhi and he had a hard time fighting his Afghan adversary from Bihar, Sher Shah. Most of their decisive battles were fought in and around Bihar. Sher Shah was more than a match for Humayun and gradually he paved his way to the throne of Delhi. During his brief reign of five years, Sher Shah proved himself to be one of the greatest rulers of medieval India. After the coming of the British to India, Bihar again played an important role in deciding the future course of the country and Buxar became the place where the final battle for supremacy in north India was fought between the East India Company and the combined forces of the Mughals, and Nawabs of Bengal and Awadh in 1764. Bihar was part of the Bengal presidency till 1911, when a separate province comprising Bihar and Orissa was created. In 1936, Bihar was made an independent province. Apart from the documented history, Bihar finds mention in the legends and tales related to the Ramayan. It is believed that the Goddess Sita, the wife of Lord Ram, was born in Mithila to King Janak, the ruler of the region

GENERAL INFORMATION

Capital : Patna
Area : 173,877 sq km
Religion : Hinduism (82.42%), Islam (14.80%), Others (2.78%)
Temperature : Max 30 degrees C Min 5 degrees C
Languages : Hindi, Maithili, Bhojpuri
Altitude: 173 Ft.

Location :
Bihar is located in the eastern region of India, bordering Nepal in the North, West Bengal in the east, Uttar Pradesh in the West, and Madhya Pradesh and Orissa in the South. Bihar lies between the latitudes 2158' and 2731' North and longitudes 8319' and 8817' east. Bihar can be divided into three distinct regions i.e. the north Gangetic plains, Central Bihar, and South Bihar plateau. The North Gangetic plain is an extension of the Terai region of Nepal with many tributaries of the Ganges like Kosi, Gandak, Baghmati, and Kamla Balan flowing through it. It is a flood prone region and one of the most backward regions in the country. Central Bihar, south of the Ganges, is a region with rich agricultural resources.

Best Time To Visit
The climate of the state is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. Monsoon brings medium to high rainfall and floods several areas in north Bihar. Humidity levels remain high in north and central Bihar throughout the summer and monsoon season, making them quite uncomfortable. The best time to visit the state is from October to March. Bihar has, in total, three National Parks, 18 wildlife sanctuaries, one Biosphere Reserve and two Project Tiger sites. The actual area under forest cover is around 15.3% of the total area. The tropical fauna of this region includes sheesham, khair, bent, mangroves, and scrubs. Major wildlife varieties include tigers, nilgai, wild boar, sambar, cheetal, and kakar.

Access

By Air - Bihar has two airports at Patna and Ranchi connected to Delhi, Mumbai, Lucknow, Calcutta, as well as Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Indian Airlines and Sahara Airways have direct flights between Patna and Delhi.

By Rail - The state has a well-developed railway network with almost all the major and minor places connected through good trains. Major railway stations like Patna, Dhanbad, Muzaffarpur, Gaya, and Ranchi are connected to all the major cities of India by regular trains.

By Road - There is good network of roads connecting all the major parts of the state with Patna, the state capital. National Highways like 2, 23, 28, 30, 31, and 33 connect the state to places all over India. The distance of some of the major places in the state from Patna are Sonepur 25 km, Vaishali 55 km, Nalanda 90 km, Gaya 97 km, Bodhgaya 110 km, and Ranchi 289 km.

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